Saturday, August 13, 2011
Saturday, August 6, 2011
1 ¶ And after these things, I saw another angel come down from heaven, having great power: and the earth was enlightened with his glory. … Scripture reference – Rev.: 10:1; Ezek.: 43:2
2 And he cried out with a strong voice, saying: Babylon the great is fallen, is fallen: and is become the habitation of devils and the hold of every unclean spirit and the hold of every unclean and hateful bird: … Scripture reference – Rev.: 14:8!; Isaiah: 13:21, 22!
3 Because all nations have drunk of the wine of the wrath of her fornication: and the kings of the earth have committed fornication with her; And the merchants of the earth have been made rich by the power of her delicacies. … Scripture reference – Rev.: 14:8; 17:2; Jer.: 51:7!; Rev.: 18:9, 15
Her Sins and Punishment
4 And I heard another voice from heaven, saying: Go out from her, my people; that you be not partakers of her sins and that you receive not of her plagues. … Scripture reference – Jer.: 51:45!; 2 Cor.: 6:17!; Eph.: 5:7!; 1 Tim.: 5:22
5 For her sins have reached unto heaven: and the Lord hath remembered her iniquities. … Scripture reference – Jer.: 51:9
6 Render to her as she also hath rendered to you: and double unto her double, according to her works. In the cup wherein she hath mingled, mingle ye double unto her. … Scripture reference – Jer.: 50:29!; 2 Thess.: 1:6
7 As much as she hath glorified herself and lived in delicacies, so much torment and sorrow give ye to her. Because she saith in her heart: I sit a queen and am no widow: and sorrow I shall not see. … Scripture reference – Isaiah: 47:8
8 Therefore, shall her plagues come in one day, death and mourning and famine. And she shall be burnt with the fire: because God is strong, who shall judge her.
Dirge of the Kings
9 ¶  And the kings of the earth, who have committed fornication and lived in delicacies with her, shall weep and bewail themselves over her, when they shall see the smoke of her burning: … Scripture reference – Rev.: 18:3; 17:2; 18:18
10 Standing afar off for fear of her torments, saying: Alas! alas! that great city, Babylon, that mighty city: for in one hour is thy judgment come. … Scripture reference – Rev.: 18:15, 16, 17
Dirge of the Merchants
11 And the merchants of the earth shall weep and mourn over her: for no man shall buy their merchandise any more. … Scripture reference – Ezek.: 27;32!
12 Merchandise of gold and silver and precious stones: and of pearls and fine linen and purple and silk and scarlet: and all thyine wood: and all manner of vessels of ivory: and all manner of vessels of precious stone and of brass and of iron and of marble:
13 And cinnamon and odours and ointment and frankincense and wine and oil and fine flour and wheat and beasts  and sheep and horses and chariots: and slaves and souls of men.
14 And the fruits of the desire of thy soul are departed from thee: and all fat and goodly things are perished from thee. And they shall find them no more at all.
15 The merchants of these things, who were made rich, shall stand afar off from her, for fear of her torments, weeping and mourning, … Scripture reference – Rev.: 18:3, 10
16 And saying: Alas! alas! that great city, which was clothed with fine linen and purple and scarlet and was gilt with gold and precious stones and pearls. … Scripture reference – Rev.: 17:4
17 For in one hour are so great riches come to nought.
Dirge of the Mariners
And every shipmaster and all that sail into the lake, and mariners, and as many as work in the sea, stood afar off, … Scripture reference – Ezek.: 27:29, 30!; Rev.: 18:10
18 And cried, seeing the place of her burning, saying: What city is like to this great city? … Scripture reference – Ezek.: 27:29, 30!; Rev.: 18:9
19 And they cast dust upon their heads and cried, weeping and mourning, saying: Alas! alas! that great city, wherein all were made rich, that had ships at sea, by reason of her prices. For, in one hour she is made desolate. … Scripture reference – Ezek.: 27:29, 30!, 32, 33!
20 Rejoice over her, thou heaven and ye holy apostles and prophets. For God hath judged your judgment on her. … Scripture reference – Rev.: 12:12
The Angel’s Promise
21 And a mighty angel took up a stone, as it were a great millstone, and cast it into the sea, saying: With such violence as this, shall Babylon, that great city, be thrown down and shall be found no more at all. … Scripture reference – Jer.: 51:63, 64
22 And the voice of harpers and of musicians and of them that play on the pipe and on the trumpet shall no more be heard at all in thee: and no craftsman  of any art whatsoever shall be found any more at all in thee: and the sound of the mill shall be heard no more at all in thee: … Scripture reference – Ezek.:26:13!; Jer.: 25:10!
23 And the light of the lamp shall shine no more at all in thee: and the voice of the bridegroom and the bride shall be heard no more at all in thee. For thy merchants were the great men of the earth: for all nations have been deceived by thy enchantments. … Scripture reference – Jer.: 25:10!
24 And in her was found the blood of prophets and of saints and of all that were slain upon the earth. … Scripture reference – Rev.: 16:6!
 -Ver. 9-19. This passage is not an account of a vision but rather a direct prophecy, after. the manner of the prophecies of Isaias and Ezechiel concerning Tyre. Tyre furnishes a type of the vengeance of God upon satanic pride and luxury.
 -Ver.13. Beasts [of burden]: the Greek has “cattle.”
 –Ver. 22 The city had boasted previously of her craftsmen, skilled in every craft.
The Truth is that the Falling Away from faith in God is the cause of evil. Many people might think that the cause of evil is this or that group of people, but that is contrary to God´s law which is just and for all men. Therefore, all people, Jew and Gentile and people of color and European ancestry and Middle Eastern, Asian etc. cannot be held responsible for the actions of evil people doing evil. The individuals who do good receive good from God and those who do evil receive evil. And God is no respecter of persons, as St. Peter said. Acts Of Apostles 10:34 And Peter opening his mouth, said: In very deed I perceive, that God is not a respecter of persons.
The Guelphs control the Papacy (Antipope Benedict XVI is one of theirs) and the banks and together they control the Jesuits who work for them.
Reference these articles.
Guelphs and Ghibellines
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Guelphs and Ghibellines were factions supporting the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, respectively, in central and northern Italy. During the 12th and 13th centuries, the split between these two parties was a particularly important aspect of the internal policy of the Italian city-states. The struggle for power between the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire had arisen with the Investiture Conflict which began in 1075 and ended with the Concordat of Worms in 1122, but the division between Guelphs and Ghibellines in
Guelph (often spelled Guelf; in Italian Guelfo, plural Guelfi) is an Italian form of Welf, the family of the dukes of Bavaria (including the namesake Welf, as well as Henry the Lion). The Welfs were said to have used the name as a rallying cry during the Battle of Weinsberg in 1140, in which the rival Hohenstaufens of Swabia (led by Conrad III) used Waiblingen, the name of a castle, as their cry. Waiblingen, at the time pronounced and spelled somewhat like "Wibellingen", became subsequently Ghibellino in Italian. The names were likely introduced to Italy during the reign of Frederick Barbarossa. When
The division between two distinct "
It must be noted that contemporaries did not use the terms
End of portion of article
From - http://www.larouchepub.com/eiw/public/2008/2008_1-9/2008_1-9/2008-9/pdf/28-29_3509.pdf
Above: “Survey of
How the 14th-Century
Lombard Banks Created the Dark Age by Paul Gallagher
This article is an excerpt from fuller treatment of the subject, under the title “How Venice Rigged the First, and Worst, Global Financial Collapse,” published in the Winter 1995 issue of Fidelio magazine. The article can be found at www.schillerinstitute.org/The Bardi, Peruzzi, and Acciaiuoli family banks, along with other large banks in Florence and Siena in particular, were all founded in the years around 1250. In the 1290s, they grew dramatically in size and rapaciousness, and were reorganized, by the influx of new partners. These were “Black Guelph” noble families, of the faction of northern Italian landed aristocracy always bitterly hostile to the government of the Holy Roman Empire. Charlemagne, 500 years earlier, had already recognized Venice as a threat equal to the marauding Vikings, and had organized a boycott to try to bring Venice to terms with his Empire. Venice in 1300 was the center of the Black Guelph faction which drove Dante and his co-thinkers from Florence. In opposition to Dante’s work De Monarchia, a whole series of political theorists of “Venice, the ideal model of government” were promoted in north Italy: Bartolomeo of Lucca, Marsiglio of Padua, Enrico Paolino of Venice, et al., all of whom based themselves on Aristotle’s Politics, which was translated into Latin for the purpose. The same “coup” made the Bardi, Peruzzi, et al. Black Guelph banking “supercompanies,” suddenly two or three times their previous size and branch structure. Machiavelli describes how, by 1308, the Black Guelph ruled everywhere in northern Italy except in Milan, which remained allied with the Holy Roman Empire and was the most economically developed and powerful city- state in Fourteenth-century Italy.
A century earlier, in the 1180s, Doge (Duke) Ziani of Venice had provoked hostilities between the two leaders of Christendom, the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick Barbarossa, the grandfather of Frederick II. Doge Ziani, in time-worn Venetian style, then personally mediated the “Peace of Constance” between the Pope and the Emperor. The Doge got his enemy, Emperor Frederick, to agree to withdraw his standard silver coinage from Italy, and allow the Italian cities to mint their own coins. Over the century from that 1183 Peace of Constance to the 1290s, Venice established the extraordinary, near-total dominance of trading in gold and silver coin and bullion throughout Europe and Asia. . . . Venice broke and replaced the European silver coinage of the Holy Roman Emperors, the Byzantine Empire’s silver coinage, and eventually broke the famous Florentine “gold form” in the decades immediately leading into the 1340s financial blowout which blew out all the financiers except the Venetians.
The Black Guelph bankers of Florence did not simply loan money to monarchs, and then expect repayment with interest. In fact, interest was often “officially” not charged on the loans, since usury was considered a sin and a crime among Christians. Rather, like the International Monetary Fund to day, the banks imposed “conditionalities” on the loans. The primary conditionality was the pledging of royal revenues directly to the bankers the clearest sign that the monarchs lacked national sovereignty against the Black Guelph “privateers.” Since in 14th-Century Europe, important commodities like food, wool, clothing, salt, iron, etc., were produced only under royal license and taxation, bank control of royal revenue led to, first, private monopolization of production of these commodities, and second, the banks’“privatization” and control of the functions of royal government itself.
By 1325, for example, the Peruzzi bank owned all of the revenues of the Kingdom of Naples (the southern half of Italy, the most productive grain belt of the entire Mediterranean area); they recruited and ran King Robert of Naples’ army, collected his duties and taxes, appointed the officials of his government, and above all, sold all the grain from his kingdom. They egged Robert on to continual wars to conquer Sicily, because through Spain, Sicily was allied with the Holy Roman Empire. Thus, Sicily’s grain production, which the Peruzzi did not control, was reduced by war.
King Robert’s Anjou relatives, the monarchs of Hungary, had their realm similarly “privatized” by the Florentine banks in the same period. In France, the Peruzzi were the cooperating bank (creditor) of the bankers to King Philip IV, the infamous Franzezi bankers “Biche and Mouche” (Albizzo and Mosciatto Guidi). The Bardi and Peruzzi banks, always in a ratio of 3:2 for investments and returns, “privatized” the revenues of Edward II and Edward III of England, paid the King’s budget, and monopolized the sales of English wool. Rather than paying interest (usury) on his loans, Edward III gave the Bardi and Peruzzi large “gifts” called “compensations” for the hardships they were supposedly suffering in paying his budget; this was in addition to assigning them his revenues. When Edward tried forbidding Italian merchants and bankers to expatriate their profits from England, they converted their profits into wool and stored huge amounts of wool at the “monasteries” of the Order of Knights Hospitalers, who were their debtors, political allies, and partners in the monopolization of the wool trade. It was the Bardi’s representatives who proposed to Edward III the wool boycott which destroyed the textile industry of Flanders because by 1340, it was the only way to continue to raise wool prices in a desperate attempt to increase Edward’s income flow, which was all assigned to the
28 Feature EIR
Bardi and Peruzzi for his debts! By 1325, Genoese bankers largely controlled the royal revenues of the Kingdom of Castille in Spain, Europe’s other supplier of wool.
In the first few years of the Hundred Years War, which began in 1339, the Florentine fmanciers imposed on England a rate of exchange which overvalued their currency, the gold form, by 15% relative to English coin. Edward III, in effect, now got 15% less for his monopolized wool. Edward tried to counterattack by minting an English form; the merchants, organized by the Florentines, refused it, and he was defeated. By this action, the Bardi and Peruzzi themselves, in effect, provoked Edward’s famous default, and demonstrated his complete lack of sovereignty at the same time....
In Italy itself, these bankers loaned aggressively to farmers and to merchants and other owners of land, often with the ultimate purpose of owning that land. This led, by the 1330s, to the wildfire spread of the infamous practice of “perpetual rents,” whereby farmers calculated the lifetime rent-value of their land and sold that value to a bank for cash for expenses, virtually guaranteeing that they would lose the land to that bank. As the historian Raymond de Roover demonstrated, the practices by which the 14th-Century banks avoided the open crime of usury, were worse than usury.
In the Italian city-states themselves, the early years of the 14th Century saw the assignment of more and more of the revenues of the primary taxes (gabeile, or sales and excise taxes) to the bankers and other Guelph Party bondholders. From about 1315, the Guelph abolished the income taxes (estirni) in the city, but increased them on the surrounding rural areas, into which they had expanded their authority. Thus, the bankers, merchants, and wealthy Guelph aristocrats did not pay taxes — instead, they made loans (prestanze) to the city and commune governments. In Florence, for example, the effective interest rate on this monte (“mountain” of debt) had reached 15% by 1342; the city debt was 1.8 million gold forms, and no clerical complaints against this usury were being raised. The gabelle taxes were pledged for six years in advance to the bondholders. At that point, Duke Walter of Brienne, who had briefly become dictator of Florence, cancelled all revenue assignments to the bankers (i.e., defaulted, exactly like Edward III).
Thus were the rural, food-producing areas of Italy depopulated and ruined in the first half of the 14th Century. The fertile contado (farmland) of Pistoia around Florence, for example, which reached a population density of 60-65 persons per square kilometer in 1250, had fallen to 50 persons per square kilometer in 1340; in 1400, after 50 years of Black Plague, its population density was 25 persons per square kilometer. Thus, the famines of 1314-17, 1328-9, and 1338-9, were not “natural disasters.”
Some of the famous banks of Tuscany had failed already in the 1320s: the Asti of Siena, the Franzezi, and the Scali company of Florence. In the 1330s, the biggest banks, with the exception of the Bardi the Peruzzi, Acciaiuoli, and Buonacorsi were losing money and plunging toward bankruptcy with the fall in production of the vital commodities which they had monopolized, and which their cancer of speculation was devouring. The Acciaiuoli and the Buonacorsi, who had been bankers of the Papacy before it left Rome, went bankrupt in 1342, with the default of the city of Florence and the first defaults of Edward III. The Peruzzi and Bardi, the world’s two largest banks, went under in 1345, leaving the entire financial market of Europe and the Mediterranean shattered, with the exception of the much smaller Hanseatic League bankers of Germany, who had never allowed the Italian banks and merchant companies to enter their cities.
Already in 1340, a deadly epidemic, unidentified but not bubonic plague, had killed up to 10% of many urban populations in northern France, and 15,000 of Florence’s 90-100,000 people had died that year. In 1347, the Black Death (bubonic and pneumonic plague), which had already killed 10 million in China, began to sweep over Europe.
28 Feature EIR
In these two excerpts below, note that whether or not gas was used on anyone in WWII (it certainly was used in WWI), that Karol Wojtoyla collaborated with the Nazis and was rewarded with being the puppet in the papacy. There he formally, actually many times, renounced the Christian faith.
John Paul II 1978- 2005 "In the early 1940`s, the I.G. Farben Chemical Company employed a Polish salesman who sold cyanide to the Nazis for use in Auschwitz. The same salesman also worked as a chemist in the manufacture of the poison gas. This same cyanide gas along with Zyklon B and malathion was used to exterminate millions of Jews and other groups. Their bodies were then burned to ashes in the ovens. After the war the salesman, fearing for his life, joined the Catholic Church and was ordained a priest in 1946. One of his closest friends was Dr. Wolf Szmuness, the mastermind behind the Nov./78 to Oct./79 and March/80 to Oct./81 experimental hepatitis B vaccine trials conducted by the Center for Disease Control in New York, San Francisco and four other American cities that loosed the plague of AIDS upon the American people. The salesman was ordained Poland`s youngest bishop in 1958. After a 30-day reign his predecessor was assassinated and our ex-cyanide gas salesman assumed the papacy as POPE JOHN PAUL II." - William Cooper, BEHOLD A PALE HORSE, (Light Technology Publishing, 1991), pp.89-90.
Pope John Paul II: Zyklon B Salesman
by TONY BUSHBY
- excerpt -
In his book 'Behold a Pale Horse,' former US Naval Intelligence Officer William Cooper relates a story associated with the IG Farben Chemical Company.
In the early 1940s, that company employed a Polish chemist and salesman who sold cyanide gas, Zyklon B and Malathion to the Nazis for extermination of groups of people in Auschwitz.
After the war the salesman joined the Catholic church and was ordained a priest.
In 1958 he became Poland's youngest bishop and after Pope John Paul I's mysterious death, the ex-cyanide gas salesman Karol Wojtyla was elected to the papacy as Pope John Paul II in October 1978.
In March 2000, he publicly apologized not for his war effort, but for the wickedness of the Christian religion. The plea for forgiveness also sought to pardon the use of 'violence in the service of truth' an often used fragile and troubling referenece to the Inquisition.
The apology read by the Pope was the result of four years of work by a panel of 28 theologians and scholars and was by far the most sweeping act by a leader of a major religion.
On few occasions have ecclesiastical authorities ever acknowlegdegd the faults or abuses of which they themselves were guilty. There was concern that the apology was a major theological miscalculation that could undermine the Pope's weakening authority and the unanswered question posed by the international media was --
'In whose name was the Pope asking for forgiveness?' (Excerpted from 'The Crucifixion of Truth' by Tony Bushby)
JESUIT OATH IN ACTION!!
According to the Vatican, the U.S. government is an heretical government because it is not based on ROMAN CANON LAW and therefore it is due for destruction according to this diabolical oath:
"When a Jesuit of the minor rank is to be elevated to command, he is conducted into the Chapel of the Convent of the Order, where there are only three others present, the principal or Superior standing in front of the altar. On either side stands a monk, one of whom holds a banner of yellow and white, which are the Papal colors, and the other a black banner with a dagger and red cross above a skull and crossbones, with the word INRI, and below them the words IUSTUM, NECAR, REGES, IMPIOUS. The meaning of which is: It is just to exterminate or annihilate impious or heretical Kings, Governments, or Rulers. Upon the floor is a red cross at which the postulant or candidate kneels. The Superior hands him a small black crucifix, which he takes in his left hand and presses to his heart, and the Superior at the same time presents to him a dagger, which he grasps by the blade and holds the point against his heart, the Superior still holding it by the hilt, and thus addresses the postulant:"
My son, heretofore you have been taught to act the dissembler: among Roman Catholics to be a Roman Catholic, and to be a spy even among your own brethren; to believe no man, to trust no man. Among the Reformers, to be a reformer; among the Huguenots, to be a Huguenot; among the Calvinists, to be a Calvinist; among other Protestants, generally to be a Protestant, and obtaining their confidence, to seek even to preach from their pulpits, and to denounce with all the vehemence in your nature our Holy Religion and the Pope; and even to descend so low as to become a Jew among Jews, that you might be enabled to gather together all information for the benefit of your Order as a faithful soldier of the Pope.
You have been taught to insidiously plant the seeds of jealousy and hatred between communities, provinces, states that were at peace, and incite them to deeds of blood, involving them in war with each other, and to create revolutions and civil wars in countries that were independent and prosperous, cultivating the arts and the sciences and enjoying the blessings of peace. To take sides with the combatants and to act secretly with your brother Jesuit, who might be engaged on the other side, but openly opposed to that with which you might be connected, only that the Church might be the gainer in the end, in the conditions fixed in the treaties for peace and that the end justifies the means.
You have been taught your duty as a spy, to gather all statistics, facts and information in your power from every source; to ingratiate yourself into the confidence of the family circle of Protestants and heretics of every class and character, as well as that of the merchant, the banker, the lawyer, among the schools and universities, in parliaments and legislatures, and the judiciaries and councils of state, and to be all things to all men, for the Pope's sake, whose servants we are unto death.
You have received all your instructions heretofore as a novice, a neophyte, and have served as co-adjurer, confessor and priest, but you have not yet been invested with all that is necessary to command in the Army of Loyola in the service of the Pope. You must serve the proper time as the instrument and executioner as directed by your superiors; for none can command here who has not consecrated his labors with the blood of the heretic; for "without the shedding of blood no man can be saved." Therefore, to fit yourself for your work and make your own salvation sure, you will, in addition to your former oath of obedience to your order and allegiance to the Pope, repeat after me---
The Extreme Oath of the Jesuits:
"1, _ now, in the presence of Almighty God, the Blessed Virgin Mary, the blessed Michael the Archangel, the blessed St. John the Baptist, the holy Apostles St. Peter and St. Paul and all the saints and sacred hosts of heaven, and to you, my ghostly father, the Superior General of the Society of Jesus, founded by St. Ignatius Loyola in the Pontificate of Paul the Third, and continued to the present, do by the womb of the virgin, the matrix of God, and the rod of Jesus Christ, declare and swear, that his holiness the Pope is Christ's Vice-regent and is the true and only head of the Catholic or Universal Church throughout the earth; and that by virtue of the keys of binding and loosing, given to his Holiness by my Savior, Jesus Christ, he hath power to depose heretical kings, princes, states, commonwealths and governments, all being illegal without his sacred confirmation and that they may safely be destroyed. Therefore, to the utmost of my power I shall and will defend this doctrine of his Holiness' right and custom against all usurpers of the heretical or Protestant authority whatever, especially the Lutheran of Germany, Holland, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, and the now pretended authority and churches of England and Scotland, and branches of the same now established in Ireland and on the Continent of America and elsewhere; and all adherents in regard that they be usurped and heretical, opposing the sacred Mother Church of Rome. I do now renounce and disown any allegiance as due to any heretical king, prince or state named Protestants or Liberals, or obedience to any of the laws, magistrates or officers.
I do further declare that the doctrine of the churches of England and Scotland, of the Calvinists, Huguenots and others of the name Protestants or Liberals to be damnable and they themselves damned who will not forsake the same.
I do further declare, that I will help, assist, and advise all or any of his Holiness' agents in any place wherever I shall be, in Switzerland, Germany, Holland, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, England, Ireland or America, or in any other Kingdom or territory I shall come to, and do my uttermost to extirpate the heretical Protestants or Liberals' doctrines and to destroy all their pretended powers, regal or otherwise.
I do further promise and declare, that notwithstanding I am dispensed with, to assume my religion heretical, for the propaganda of the Mother Church's interest, to keep secret and private all her agents' counsels from time to time, as they may entrust me and not to divulge, directly or indirectly, by word, writing or circumstance whatever; but to execute all that shall be proposed, given in charge or discovered unto me, by you, my ghostly father, or any of this sacred covenant.
I do further promise and declare, that I will have no opinion or will of my own, or any mental reservation whatever, even as a corpse or cadaver (perinde ac cadaver), but will unhesitatingly obey each and every command that I may receive from my superiors in the Militia of the Pope and of Jesus Christ.
That I may go to any part of the world withersoever I may be sent, to the frozen regions of the North, the burning sands of the desert of Africa, or the jungles of India, to the centers of civilization of Europe, or to the wild haunts of the barbarous savages of America, without murmuring or repining, and will be submissive in all things whatsoever communicated to me.
I furthermore promise and declare that I will, when opportunity present, make and wage relentless war, secretly or openly, against all heretics, Protestants and Liberals, as I am directed to do, to extirpate and exterminate them from the face of the whole earth; and that I will spare neither age, sex or condition; and that I will hang, waste, boil, flay, strangle and bury alive these infamous heretics, rip up the stomachs and wombs of their women and crush their infants' heads against the walls, in order to annihilate forever their execrable race. That when the same cannot be done openly, I will secretly use the poisoned cup, the strangulating cord, the steel of the poniard or the leaden bullet, regardless of the honor, rank, dignity, or authority of the person or persons, whatever may be their condition in life, either public or private, as I at any time may be directed so to do by any agent of the Pope or Superior of the Brotherhood of the Holy Faith, of the Society of Jesus.
In confirmation of which, I hereby dedicate my life, my soul and all my corporal powers, and with this dagger which I now receive, I will subscribe my name written in my own blood, in testimony thereof; and should I prove false or weaken in my determination, may my brethren and fellow soldiers of the Militia of the Pope cut off my hands and my feet, and my throat from ear to ear, my belly opened and sulphur burned therein, with all the punishment that can be inflicted upon me on earth and my soul be tortured by demons in an eternal hell forever!
All of which, I, _, do swear by the Blessed Trinity and blessed Sacraments, which I am now to receive, to perform and on my part to keep inviolable; and do call all the heavenly and glorious host of heaven to witness the blessed Sacrament of the Eucharist, and witness the same further with my name written and with the point of this dagger dipped in my own blood and sealed in the face of this holy covenant."
(He receives the wafer from the Superior and writes his name with the point of his dagger dipped in his own blood taken from over his heart.)
"You will now rise to your feet and I will instruct you in the Catechism necessary to make yourself known to any member of the Society of Jesus belonging to this rank.
In the first place, you, as a Brother Jesuit, will with another mutually make the ordinary sign of the cross as any ordinary Roman Catholic would; then one cross his wrists, the palms of his hands open, and the other in answer crosses his feet, one above the other; the first points with forefinger of the right hand to the center of the palm of the left, the other with the forefinger of the left hand points to the center of the palm of the right; the first then with his right hand makes a circle around his head, touching it; the other then with the forefinger of his left hand touches the left side of his body just below his heart; the first then with his right hand draws it across the throat of the other, and the latter then with a dagger down the stomach and abdomen of the first. The first then says Iustum; and the other answers Necar; the first Reges. The other answers Impious." (The meaning of which has already been explained.) "The first will then present a small piece of paper folded in a peculiar manner, four times, which the other will cut longitudinally and on opening the name Jesu will be found written upon the head and arms of a cross three times. You will then give and receive with him the following questions and answers:
Question —From whither do you come? Answer — The Holy faith.
Q. —Whom do you serve?
A. —The Holy Father at Rome, the Pope, and the Roman Catholic Church Universal throughout the world.
Q. —Who commands you?
A. —The Successor of St. Ignatius Loyola, the founder of the Society of Jesus or the Soldiers of Jesus Christ.
Q. —Who received you? A. —A venerable man in white hair.
A. —With a naked dagger, I kneeling upon the cross beneath the banners of the Pope and of our sacred order.
Q. —Did you take an oath?
A. —I did, to destroy heretics and their governments and rulers, and to spare neither age, sex nor condition. To be as a corpse without any opinion or will of my own, but to implicitly obey my Superiors in all things without hesitation of murmuring.
Q. —Will you do that? A. —I will.
Q. —How do you travel? A. —In the bark of Peter the fisherman.
Q. —Whither do you travel? A. —To the four quarters of the globe.
Q. —For what purpose?
A. —To obey the orders of my general and Superiors and execute the will of the Pope and faithfully fulfill the conditions of my oaths.
Q. —Go ye, then, into all the world and take possession of all lands in the name of the Pope. He who will not accept him as the Vicar of Jesus and his Vice-regent on earth, let him be accursed and exterminated."
This oath is taken from the book Subterranean Rome by Charles Didier, translated from the French and published in New York in 1843.
Tuesday, August 2, 2011
|— Comune —|
|Comune di Casale Monferrato|
|Frazioni||Casale Popolo, Rolasco, Roncaglia, San Germano, Santa Maria del Tempio, Terranova, Vialarda |
|- Mayor||Giorgio Demezzi (Centre-Right)|
|- Total||86.32 km2 (33.3 sq mi)|
|Elevation||116 m (381 ft)|
|Population (30 June 2009)|
|- Density||417.7/km2 (1,081.9/sq mi)|
|Demonym||Casalesi or Casalaschi|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|- Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Patron saint||St. Evasius|
|Saint day||12 November|
Casale Monferrato, population 36,058, is a town and comune in the Piedmont region of north-west Italy, part of the province of Alessandria. It is situated about 60 km east of Turin on the right bank of the Po, where the river runs at the foot of the Montferrato hills. Beyond the river lies the vast plain of the Po valley.
The origins of the town are fairly obscure. It is known that the Gaulish settlement of Vardacate (from var = "water"; ate = "populated place") existed on the Po in this area, and that it became a Roman municipium. By the beginning of the 8th century there was a small town under Lombard rule, probably called Sedula or Sedulia. It was here (according to late and unreliable accounts) that one Saint Evasius, along with 146 followers, was decapitated on the orders of the Arian Duke Attabulo. Liutprand, King of the Lombards is said to have supported the construction of a church in honour of Evasius. Certainly the martyr’s cult flourished and by 988 the town had become known as Casale di Sant’Evasio.
At the time of Charlemagne, the town came under the temporal and religious power of the bishops of Vercelli, from which it was freed by Frederick Barbarossa, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Italy. It was sacked by the anti-imperial troops of Vercelli, Alessandria and Milan in 1215, but rebuilt and fortified in 1220. It fell under the power of the Marquess of Montferrat in 1292, and later became the capital of the marquessate.
In 1745, following the defeat of the Piedmontese army at the Battle of Bassignano, Casale was occupied by the victorious French and Spanish troops. Much damage was caused to the city’s buildings; the subsequent renovation and rebuilding in the Baroque style made a substantial contribution to the urban texture.
It successfully resisted the Austrians in 1849, and was strengthened in 1852. Towards the end of the 19th century it became known as "Cement Capital" (capitale del cemento), thanks to the quantity of Portland cement in the hills nearby, and in the 20th century it acquired printing press and refrigerator industries.
 Piazza Mazzini and its environs
The historic centre of the town is itself centred on Piazza Mazzini, the site of the Roman forum. Named for Giuseppe Mazzini, a key republican figure of the Risorgimento, it is dominated by an 1843 equestrian statue by Abbondio Sangiorgio of King Charles Albert of Piedmont-Sardinia, dressed in Roman costume, specifically as a senator, with his knees uncovered. The statue was commissioned by the municipal authorities as a mark of gratitude to the king for having selected Casale as the seat of Piedmont’s second Court of Appeal and to celebrate the construction of Casale’s first permanent bridge across the Po. Locally the square is called Piazza Cavallo (wiktionary:cavallo being the Italian word for "horse").
 Cathedral (Duomo)
A little to the east of the square is the Lombard Romanesque cathedral of Sant'Evasio, originally founded in 742, rebuilt in the early 12th century and consecrated on 7 January 1107 by Pope Paschal II. It occupies a site where once was a Roman temple dedicated to Jupiter. It underwent restoration in 1706 and again in the 19th century. The cathedral has an asymmetric façade, including a complex narthex with two galleries (matronaei) connected by a tribune and closed by round arches. The interior houses the relics of Saint Evasius and, near the presbytery, fragments 11th century pavement mosaics with Biblical scenes (now remounted on the walls of the corridor from the apse to the sacristy).
 San Domenico
In 1471, after William VIII, Marquess of Montferrat had chosen Casale as the permanent location of the marquisate court, construction began of the church of San Domenico, to the north of Piazza Mazzini. Work on the building ceased for some time, as a result of political instability; in the early 16th century a fine, if slightly incongruous, Renaissance portal was imposed on the late Gothic façade.
 Via Lanza
Via Lanza, which runs northwards from the north-west corner of Piazza Mazzini, is known for the Krumiri Rossi bakery, which indeed produces Krumiri: biscuits which have been a speciality of Casale since their legendary invention in 1870 by one Domenico Rossi after an evening spent with friends in Piazza Mazzini’s Caffè della Concordia (now a bank). Also in Via Lanza is the 17th-century church of San Giuseppe, probably designed by Sebastiano Guala; a painting attributed to the Ursuline nun Lucrina Fetti (c.1614–1651, brother of Domenico) shows Christ venerated by Sant’Evasio and includes a very accurate depiction of contemporary Casale with its civic tower. The church and convent of San Francesco, which housed the remains of many of the Marquises of Monferrato, was turned to other uses during the 18th century and demolished in the nineteenth. The high open tower which is a landmark of Via Lanza belongs to Palazzo Morelli di Popolo; it has been attributed to Bernardo Vittone, and also to Magnocavalli—both are believed to have had a hand in the refurbishment of the building.
 Via Saffi
Running west from Piazza Mazzini to Piazza Castello is Via Saffi, which contains one of the town’s most recognizable landmarks: the Torre Civica. This brick tower, square in plan and 60 metres high, dates from the 11th century but suffered severe fire damage in April 1504 when a festival to celebrate the peace between Holy Roman Emperor Maximillian I and King Louis XII of France got out of hand. The reconstruction, completed six years later by Matteo Sammicheli, produced a taller structure which included the current bell-chamber. The balconies attached to the upper part of the tower were added during the period of Gonzaga rule. Subsequent restorations were carried out in 1779 (after a lightning strike which destroyed the 15th-century clock) and again in 1920.
Adjoining the tower is the church of Santo Stefano which stands on the east side of a small square named after it. The church’s origins date to the beginning of the second millennium, but it was largely rebuilt in the mid-17th century under a project attributed to Sebastiano Guala; work on the current façade began in 1787 but was not completed until the late 19th century. Inside are paintings by Giovanni Francesco Caroto (1480–1555), Il Moncalvo (1568–1625), Giorgio Alberini (1575/6 – 1625/6), and Francesco Cairo (1607–1665). Adorning both the walls and the vault are 15 tondi depicting prophets, apostles and the Virgin painted by Pietro Francesco Guala in 1757, the last year of his life.
The south side of Piazza Santo Stefano, facing back towards Via Saffi, is formed by the neo-classical Palazzo Ricci di Cereseto. The imposing façade, marked by four massive brick columns, was built in 1806 to an earlier design by the local architect Francesco Ottavio Magnocavalli.
 Piazza Castello
Piazza Castello is a large irregularly shaped open space used as a car park and as a market square; it is dominated by the castle of the Paleologi which occupies most of its western side. The square arose in 1858 through the demolition of the castle’s eastern ravelin, and was extended in the late nineteenth/early 20th century when the remaining ravilins were removed.
 The castle
The castle itself is an imposing 15th century military construction, with a hexagonal plan, four round towers and an encircling moat.
 Santa Caterina
At the south-east corner of the piazza is the elegant Baroque church of Santa Maria delle Grazie, better known by its earlier designation of Santa Caterina. A master-work of Giovanni Battista Scapitta, completed after his death by Giacomo Zanetti, it is marked by an elliptical cupola, and a façade curvilinear both in plan and elevation.
 Teatro Municipale
The theatre, which stands at the north-eastern corner of the piazza at the end of Via Saffi, opened in 1791 with a performance of the La moglie capricciosa, an opera buffa by Vincenzo Fabrizi. Its construction, to a design by Abbot Agostino Vitoli of Spoleto, had taken six years. However it fell into disuse during the period of Napoleonic rule and remained closed for several decades. After extensive internal embellishment, the theatre reopened in 1840 with a performance of Vincenzo Bellini’s Beatrice di Tenda. In 1861 the theatre was sold by the Società dei Nobili to the local authority (the comune) which made it more accessible to the general public. Nevertheless it fell again into decline; during World War II it was used as a store. Major restoration work took place in the 1980s and the theatre finally reopened in 1990 with a performance by Vittorio Gassmann. Since then it has offered a mixture of theatre, music and dance, while the foyer is used for exhibitions, usually photographic.
The horseshoe-shaped auditorium with stalls, four tiers of boxes and a gallery (or loggione, i.e. the gods) is richly decorated with frescoes, stucco, gilding and velvet. The curtains of the royal box hang from a structure supported on stucco caryatids by Abbondio Sangiorgio who also designed the equestrian statue in Piazza Mazzini. 
 Via Garibaldi and Sant’Ilario
From the side of the theatre Via Garibaldi leads northwards to the 16th-century church of Sant'Ilario, founded in 380 in honour of Hilary of Poitiers. It was completely rebuilt in 1566 and was largely restructured towards the end of the 19th century. The church’s polychrome façade is of interest and it contains two important works by Niccolò Musso: the Madonna del Carmine (‘Our Lady of Mount Carmel’) and San Francesco ai piedi del Crocefisso (‘Saint Francis at the foot of the Crucifix’) originally from the church of San Francesco.
 Via Roma, ghetto and synagogue
Behind the shops on the west side of Via Roma, which runs southwards from Piazza Mazzini, lay the ghetto which persisted until the emancipation of the Jews in Piedmont following Charles Albert’s concession of a constitution, the Statuto Albertino, under the revolutionary pressures of 1848. The Synagogue of Casale Monferrato is inside a building at Vicolo Olper 44 that offers no hint from its nondescript exterior that it is a synagogue, built in 1595, and recognized as one of the most beautiful in Europe. The women’s galleries now host an important Jewish museum. Of particular interest are the Tablets of the Law in gilded wood, dating from the 18th century, numerous Rimonim (finials to scrolls of the Law) and Atarot (crowns for the scrolls of the Law) carved and with silver filigree.
 The Giardini pubblici and public sculpture
The public gardens which front the railway station extend westwards, dissected by various streets, almost to the southern end of Via Roma. They contain a range of monuments to figures of local and national renown including Giovanni Lanza (sculpted by Odoardo Tabacchi, 1887), Giuseppe Antonio Ottavi (Leonardo Bistolfi, 1890), Filippo Mellana (Giacomo Ginotti, 1887), and Giuseppe Garibaldi (Primo Giudici, 1884).
The most important, however, is Bistolfi’s war memorial of 1928 (pictured left). A marble exedra with four caryatids in the form of winged victories is raised on a dias fronted with steps. The bronze sculpture Il Fante Crociato, a foot soldier in crusader-period costume, takes centre stage; a second bronze a lightly robed Primavera Italica (Italic Spring) steps down from the platform and out of the ensemble.
Other public sculptures of note in Casale include the monument to King Charles Albert in Piazza Mazzini mentioned above, Bistolfi’s 1887 monument to Urbano Rattazzi in Piazza Rattazzi, Benedetto Cacciatori’s Luigi Canina in Piazza Santo Stefano.The Monumento alla difesa di Casale (Francesco Porzio, 1897; pictured right), situated to the north of the castle, commemorates the vigorous action which took place during the First Italian War of Independence in 1849 to defend the city against Austrian troops who had just taken part in the defeat of the Piedmontese army. In the Priocco district, to the south of the historic centre, in Viale Ottavio Marchino, there is a monument by Virgilio Audagna to the cement industrialist Ottavio Marchino, son of the founder of Cementi Marchino, which is now part of Buzzi Unicem.
The historic centre is marked by many palazzi which are often Baroque in appearance (though the substance is often earlier), reflecting the urban renewal which took place in the early decades of the 18th century. Among the best known are:
- the 15th-century palazzo of the marchesa Anna d'Alençon in Via Alessandria.
- The 15th-century Palazzo Treviso, in Via Trevigi, was restructured on behalf of the Anna d’Alençon before being given to the Dominican convent. During the Napoleonic period it was used as a lyceum and has subsequently remained in scholastic use.
- Palazzo Del Carretto, also known as the Casa Tornielli, in Via Canina, again dating from the 15th century, now housing a language school.
- The medieval Casa Biandrate, at the junction of Via Guazzo and Via Morini, has preserved its late gothic character.
- Palazzo Sannazzaro, a gothic building in Via Mameli, remodelled in the baroque style by Giacomo Zanetti (1698–1735).
- Palazzo Gozani di Treville, regarded as the most beautiful in the town and as one of the two most important works of Giovanni Battista Scapitta, the other being the church of Santa Catarina, mentioned above. The rococò atrium and courtyard are particularly praised, as is the long and gently curved façade which follows the path of Via Mameli.
- Palazzo Gozani di San Giorgio, now the town hall, was partially rebuilt in the years 1775–8 to a design by Filippo Nicolis de Robilant. The façade is of three orders with its windows surrounded by decorations in stucco. Via Mameli.
- Palazzo Magnocavalli has a façade commissioned from Giacomo Zanetti by the architect Francesco Ottavio Magnocavalli. Inside, the monumental twisted staircase, supported by two columns, fits gracefully into a very restricted space. Via Mameli.
- Palazzo Fornara, built in 1840 in the neo-classical style by the Vercellese Pietro Bosso, forms the east side of Piazza Mazzini. The site was previously occupied by the church of Santa Maria di Piazza which was deconsecrated during the Napoleonic period. Since 1925 it has been a bank.
- Palazzo Langosco, in Via Corte d’Appello, encloses part of the main cloister of the former Augustinian convent complex of Santa Croce. Once the seat of the Senate of Montferrat, it now houses the public library.
- The neo-classical Palazzo Sacchi-Nemours, beside the Teatro Civico in Via Saffi, was built in 1750–2 by the local architect Francesco Ottavio Magnocavalli.
- Palazzo Ricci di Cereseto, in Piazzetta di S. Stefano, has an imposing neo-classical façade fronted by four massive brickwork columns, constructed in 1806 by G. Battista Formiglia, probably following a design by Magnocavalli.
- Palazzo Gaspardone-Ottavi, in Via Cavour, came into the possession of the Ottavi family during the 19th century and is noted for Bistolfi’s plaque commemorating Ottavio Ottavi (an oenologist known also, in his home town, for writing the Inno ai krumiri, or ‘hymn to the krumiri biscuits’) and a memorial tablet to Saint Luigi Gonzaga.
 Museums and galleries
Casale was an important center for Italian music from the 13th through the 17th centuries. During the Albigensian Crusade, Casale was a refuge for troubadours fleeing regions to the west; the music of such troubadours may have been decisive in the formation of secular Italian musical styles in the 14th century (see Music of the Trecento). In the 16th century the town was incorporated into the holdings of the Gonzaga family, who were patrons of music throughout the Renaissance.
The cathedral there has in its archives polyphonic music by Jean Mouton, Andreas de Silva, and Francesco Cellavenia, as well as important prints by Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina and other major composers of the period. In the 17th and 18th centuries, Casale was the site for premieres of operas by Giulio Cesare Monteverdi, Pietro Guglielmi, and Pasquale Anfossi, and was the birthplace of the Swiss-Italian composer Carlo Evasio Soliva. Currently the city's musical center is the Teatro Municipale.
Casale is situated in a plain where rice cultivation is predominant, and in an area of cement-bearing hills and wineries. Casale is also well known for being the district of refrigeration, one of the main of Italy.
The district in Casale has born in Novembre 1945, with the first company called "Franger Frigor s.r.l." New companies started in 1957 "Mondial Frigori s.r.l." and many more after. Only to name few Carma S.p.A", "Cofi S.p.A", "Framec S.p.A", all of them connected in some way with "Franger Frigor" In 1965 Vendo Italy S.p.A. who sales bottle coolers and vending machines. Late '60 "Cold Car" started a new production in Refrigerated vehichles using Eutectic plates. Other companies started production in the following years: "Industra Apparecchiature Refrigerate IAR", "PastorFrigor", "GeneralFilter", "Unifrigor", "IARP" "Dena" is another company working on refrigeration filters and capillary tubes. Around 13 manufacturing companies work now in this field. Most of the production in Casale is about Vending machines, Bottle Coolers, Vertical and Horizontal Cabinet, Refrigerated trucks. In this field many are the technological innovations driven by environmental and energy efficiencies aspects which are used by those companies.
Casale is also known for the training facilities in refrigeration and air conditioning organised by Centro Studi Galileo since 1975.Centro Studi Galileo In Casale arrive more than 1000 delegates to attend the periodical courses to learn the refrigeration technique in preparation to the certification of personel.
 Twin towns — Sister cities
Casale Monferrato is twinned with:
- Trnava, Slovakia, since 1967
- Weinstadt, Germany, since 2007
- Pescara, Italy, since 2009
- Gjirokastër, Albania, since 2010
The town’s football club, A.S. Casale, was founded in 1909. Within five years it achieved the twin peaks of its success: in 1913 it became the first Italian club to beat an English professional team (Reading F.C.), and in the 1913–14 season it won the Italian Championship. The team dropped out of Serie A in 1934, however, and in the 2006–7 season it is playing in Serie D/A.
During the 1970s, an annual under-21 football tournament took place in Casale Monferrato. It was named the "Caligaris" International Tournament, after Umberto Caligaris.
The local basketball team, A.S. Junior Libertas Pallacanestro Casale Monferrato, was founded in 1956 and today competes in LegADue, the second tier of the sport in Italy.
- Saint Joseph’s Fair (Mostra mercato di San Giuseppe). A fair of industry, commerce, handicraft, and agriculture held since 1946. Mid-March; Cittadella.
- Rice and Roses (Riso&Rose). A festival of concerts, pageants, markets and other events held in and around Casale since 2001. May.
- Folkermesse (from Folk + Kermesse). The world folk music and dance festival, first staged in Casale in 1983, includes the town on its summer itinerary. July–September.
- Magiche Figure. Exhibition of puppet theatre from Italy and abroad. September.
- Festival of Wine and the Monferrato. A celebration of local wine and food together with related events. Mid-September.
- Antiques market. Founded in 1973, this popular market is held on the second weekend of the month (except August) in the Mercato Pavia.
- The Artemista craft market and Il Paniere market of organic produce market are held on the third Saturday of each month in Piazza Mazzini.
- Casale Open City (Casale Città Aperta, a play on the title of the classic neorealist film Roma, città aperta). Many of the town’s monuments are open, with free guided tours on the Sunday afternoon. Second weekend of the month.
- Twice weekly
- Market days. Tuesday and Friday; Piazza Castello.
Notable people born in Casale, or with close connections to the town, include:
- Evasius (died 3rd, 4th, or 8th century, perhaps), martyr and patron saint of the town.
- Ubertino da Casale (1259–1329), Franciscan preacher and theologian.
- Yolande of Montferrat (1274–1317), became Eirene, Empress-Consort of Andronikos II Palaiologos, Byzantine emperor.
- Facino Cane (1360–1412), condottiere.
- William VIII (1420–1483), the Marquess of Montferrat who established Casale as its definitive capital.
- Boniface III ((1424–1494)), Marquess of Montferrat.
- Giovanni Martino Spanzotti (born circa 1455), painter,
- William IX (1486–1518), Marquess of Montferrat.
- Anna d'Alençon (1492–1562), Marchioness of Montferrat.
- Bianca Maria Gaspardone (died 1526), the rich heiress who became wife to Ermes Visconti and to the Count of Cellant, (and mistress to many more) before her public execution in Milan.
- John George (1488–1533), Marquess of Montferrat.
- Boniface IV (1512–1530), Marquess of Montferrat.
- Stefano Guazzo (1530–1593), founder of the Casale literary academy the Illustrati.
- Niccolò Musso (c.1590 – c.1623), painter of the Baroque period.
- Camilla Faà di Bruno (c.1599-1662), the ‘Bella Ardizzina’ who secretly married Francesco Gonzaga Duke of Ferrara and of Montferrat.
- Ferdinando del Cairo (1666–1748), a painter of the Italian Baroque school, was born in Casale.
- Giacomo Zanetti (1698–1735), master-builder and architect who completed the baroque reconstruction of Santa Caterina, and built several palazzi in the town.
- Pietro Francesco Guala (1698–1757), painter of the Piedmontese Baroque school.
- Francesco Ottavio Magnocavalli (1707–89), architect.
- Carlo Cozio, Count of Montiglio and Salabue (1715–1780), chess player.
- Carlo Vidua, Count of Conzano (1785–1830), traveller and archeologist.
- Carlo Evasio Soliva (1791–1853), musician.
- Luigi Canina (1795–1856), archaeologist and architect.
- Joseph Rocchietti, the earliest known Italian-American novelist, was an emigrant from Casale.
- Giovanni Lanza (1810–1882), politician.
- Ascanio Sobrero (1812–1888), chemist.
- Eleuterio Pagliano (1826–1903), painter.
- Luigi Hugues (1836–1913), engineer, geographer and musician.
- Francesco Negri (1841–1924), photographer.
- Giovanni Celoria (1842–1920), astronomer.
- Giulio Viotte (1845–78), artist.
- Giovanni Camerana (1845–1905), magistrate, poet, art critic: one of the prime members of the scapigliatura movement.
- Leonardo Bistolfi (1859–1933), sculptor.
- Leandro Bisiach (1864–1946), a violin maker.
- Ugo Cavallero (1880–1943), military commander.
- Cesare Maria De Vecchi (1884–1959), politician.
- Umberto Caligaris (1901–1940), footballer.
- Egidio Ortona (1911–1996), diplomat.
- Augusto Segre (1915–1986), writer and antifascist.
- Giampaolo Pansa (born 1935), journalist and writer.
- Sergio Castelletti (born 1937), footballer.
- Giovanni Piana (born 5 April 1940), philosopher.
- Roberto Bolle (born 1975), ballet dancer, was born in Casale, although he grew up in Trino Vercellese.
 Fictional Casale
A siege of the town plays a significant off-stage role in Alessandro Manzoni’s’s novel The Betrothed, and is the centre of Chapter 2 of the novel The Island of the Day Before by Umberto Eco, who was born in neighbouring Alessandria. Casale also appears in a best-selling historical yarn Bellarion the Fortunate by the Anglo Italian writer Rafael Sabatini. A real 13th century personality, Ubertino of Casale, is a character in Eco's historical novel The Name of the Rose (1980).
 References and footnotes
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Some of the content of this article comes from the equivalent Italian-language Wikipedia article (retrieved September 10, 2005).
- Grignolio, Idro (1983). Casale Monferrato. Casale Monferrato: Media editrice.
- Grignolio (see above)
- The historic centre
- Grignolio (see above)
- Casale città aperta (2002 pamphlet produced by the Museo Civico)
- Crawford, David: 'Casale Monferrato', Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy (Accessed December 18, 2005), <http://www.grovemusic.com>.
- Ente Manifestazioni - Casale Monferrato - AL - Italy (Italian)
- Profilo della città di Casale Monferrato (Italian)
- Ethnosuoni - Folkermesse (Italian)
- ^ a b c d "Profilo della Città". Comune di Casale Monferrato. http://www.comune.casale-monferrato.al.it/IT/cityhall/profilo_citta.asp?pid=CH_PROFILO. Retrieved 2010-09-01.
- ^ Piemonte in cifre: Annuario statistico regionale
- ^ Grignolio, p.15
- ^ Stillwell, Richard, ed (1976). "VARDAGATE (Casale Monferrato) Piedmont, Italy". The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691035423. http://icarus.umkc.edu/sandbox/perseus/pecs/page.4788.a.php
- ^ For the dates of birth and death see "Lucrina Fetti". http://www.arabafelice.it/dominae/scheda.php?id=10046.
- ^ "Teatro municipale". Comune di Casale Monferrato. http://www.comune.casale-monferrato.al.it/IT/education/teatromunicipale.asp.
- ^ Crawford, Grove online
- ^ "The Forgotten Italian Job of 1974" - Blackpool-mad.co.uk
- ^ John Marston The Insatiate Countess, ed. by Giorgio Melchiori (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1984), p. 20.
- Media related to Casale Monferrato at Wikimedia Commons
- Official town website (Italian)
- The article on Casale Monferrato in the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia includes a brief history of the Diocese of Casale Monferrato.
- Duomo di Casale Monferrato (Italian), official site of the city’s cathedral.
- Il Monferrato on line (Italian), site of the local newspaper.
- MonferratoArte (Italian) A historical and bibliographical directory of artists active in the extra-urban Churches of the Diocese of Casale Monferrato.
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